lana Archives - Dr Bill Sukala Health Science Communicator Tue, 21 Sep 2021 02:07:03 +0000 en-US hourly 1 lana Archives - Dr Bill Sukala 32 32 ApneaRx Review: Does it work? Fri, 17 Jun 2016 05:54:51 +0000 What does ApneaRx do? ApneaRx is an oral appliance marketed as a treatment to snoring and mild to moderate sleep apnea. It can purportedly enhance the user’s quality of sleep (as …

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What does ApneaRx do?

ApneaRx is an oral appliance marketed as a treatment to snoring and mild to moderate sleep apnea.

It can purportedly enhance the user’s quality of sleep (as well as that of their bed mate).

US company Apnea Sciences Corporation in California developed ApneaRx while CareFusion is responsible for the distribution of the device throughout Australia.

The ApneaRx device maintains the user’s jaws slightly apart to allow the flow of air.

The top tray remains in a fixed position relative to your upper teeth and the bottom tray is then adjusted forward relative to the top piece in 1 to 10 mm increments.

This means it can push your jaw forward to help keep your airway open to prevent the soft tissue in the back of your throat collapsing.

With the airway open, you breathe normally and quietly instead of flapping around like air escaping from a balloon.

At least that’s the theory, but is it valid?

“FDA Approved?”

The Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA) is a US federal agency which regulates new foods and health-related products.

ApneaRx’s packaging states the product is “FDA approved,” but what exactly does “FDA approved” mean?

FDA approval simply means that it complies with the essential design and safety requirements of such a device, but does not certify how well it works. In other words, they’re saying it won’t hurt you, but there’s no guarantee it will help you either.

Related article: Under Armour Athlete Recovery Sleepwear Review

Apnea Sciences Corporation and previous FDA violations

A bit of detective work shows the developers of ApneaRx have previously been in hot water with the FDA over their marketing claims.

On May 9th, 2013, the FDA issued a lengthy and scathing warning letter to the company detailing various breaches of good manufacturing practices, marketing regulations, and handling of consumer complaints.

In relation to a similar product, the SnoreRx, the FDA cited them for not obeying the marketing rules.

Apnea Sciences Inc. said the SnoreRx aided in the treatment of bruxism (teeth grinding), Trans-Mandibular Joint (TMJ) syndrome according to “clinical studies”, and was BPA-free.

When asked to produce the necessary evidence as requested by the FDA, Apnea Sciences instead elected to just remove the claims from their SnoreRX packaging.

On inspection, the FDA also found a number of flaws with the company’s quality assurance procedures and record keeping.

More specifically, there was a failure to document, investigate and follow up complaints corresponding to returned devices.

The FDA also found a marketing violation on the ApneaRx’s user instructions which claims that the device is “the first line of therapy for mild to moderate sleep apnea and CPAP intolerant patients”.

The FDA requested performance data to substantiate the claim but there does not appear to be any reputable and publicly available data to support this claim.

Interestingly, the FDA’s premarket notification to Apnea Sciences two years earlier (2011) clearly stated: “We remind you, however, that device labelling must be truthful and not misleading.”

Based on the evidence (or lack thereof) presented in the 2013 letter, the company appears to have shirked the FDA’s recommendations.

Apnea Sciences President James Fallon

In the mid to late 1990s, Apnea Sciences Corporation’s president James Fallon was the president of a company called Derma Genesis.

In November 1997, the FDA received notice that Fallon was marketing a product called Derma Peel without obtaining the requisite clearance from the FDA.

Court documents state that in February of 1998, Fallon faxed a forged 510(k) clearance letter to investors.

It included a date stamp from a previous letter from the FDA which, ironically, cautioned him not to market Derma Peel until he obtained prior FDA clearance.

On October 14, 2003, Fallon was convicted one count of wire fraud and three counts of mail fraud in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

He was sentenced to 12 months in jail followed by a 36-month term of supervised release, a fine of $1,000, and restitution of approximately $55,000.

“Recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM)”

Digging further into the marketing of the ApneaRx, I came across a promotional video posted by Australian retailer Harvey Norman.

The opening shot of the video (see screenshot below) includes a subtitle, “recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and the American Academy of Physicians.”


Firstly, there is no such organisation as the American Academy of Physicians.

There is an American Academy of Family Physicians and an American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (AADSM) either of which might have been what they intended.

Secondly, I contacted the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to verify if ApneaRx was, in fact, internationally recognised by this organisation.

AASM’s Director of Communications Thomas Heffron promptly replied with, “The AASM does not recommend any specific oral appliance device.  We will contact ApneaRx immediately.”

Heffron also provided a link to the updated AASM clinical practice guidelines for oral appliance therapy.

Created in conjunction with the AADSM, it recommends “a qualified dentist use a custom, titratable appliance over non-custom oral devices.”

The ApneaRx is a “boil and bite” device that does not meet this criterion.

ApneaRx and Harvey Norman Australia have since taken down the promotional video on Vimeo but the same video can be accessed via the ApneaRx YouTube channel.

Research: Are there any studies to support product claims?

ApneaRx promotional videos (see screen shot below) directly claim that the device “is clinically proven to treat sleep apnea,” “effectively reduces snoring,” and that it is a “preferred alternative to CPAP therapy.”

apnearx clinically proven

However, a search of the medical journal databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar did not return a single independent peer-reviewed publication for ApneaRx.

So what data is the company referencing to substantiate their “clinically proven” claims?

Apnea Sciences Corporation refers to one unpublished study on their website which was conducted by the company itself in partnership with Kaiser Permanente Sleep Lab in California.

According to the document: “This pilot study was performed to determine feasibility of using it in an anticipated custom mandibular advancement device (MAD) predictor-of-response research study.”

In other words, the study was only trying to determine if using ApneaRx as a “warm up” was a good predictor of a patient being able to succeed and cope with a full custom device.

Twenty-five percent of those recruited opted out due to discomfort including pain and poor fit.

Twelve patients (5%) of the 227 initially recruited were deemed good candidates for a custom device after trialling the ApneaRx at home. It was reported that all 12 had a good response to the specialist custom made device.

All things considered, there is nothing technically “wrong” with this study, however, these results must be viewed with caution for the following reasons:

  1. The results of this study are irrelevant to ApneaRx’s primary marketing claims that it “reduces snoring” and is a “preferred alternative to CPAP therapy.”
  2. The study presents a number of limitations and does not provide conclusive evidence of its efficacy in a larger population over a long period of time.
  3. The information presented is only a poster presentation of an abstract. At the time of this writing, I was unable to locate a full text published manuscript in a peer-reviewed medical journal (i.e., it has not been verified and critiqued by independent scientific review).

Following on from the above discussion, in a video on the ApneaRx’s Australian website, they make direct claims that in “clinical studies, 75% of users slept better, snored less, and felt more refreshed than usual” and that “ApneaRx provides results consistent with those achieved with more expensive custom made oral appliances.”

apnearx marketing claims

The study referenced in fine print below their claims appears to be the same single pilot study discussed above (not clinical studies, as if indicating more than one).  

Unfortunately, based on the publicly available data, the results do not actually support these claims.

In this screenshot from the ApneaRx Australia website (below), the company alludes to the notion that ApneaRx cures sleep apnea.

This claim is false. There is no independent evidence that sleep apnea can be “cured” by pre-fabricated oral appliances (such as ApneaRx).

apnearx sleep apnea

Side Effects

There does not appear to be any significant risk associated with using ApneaRx. 

As with any generic “boil and bite” oral appliance, potential side effects might include jaw pain or discomfort (as in this review) and/or teeth and gum soreness.

These side effects could be due to the natural adjustment period, but if pain persists, or becomes severe see your doctor.

Does ApneaRx Work?

The answer to this is both a “yes” and “no” and depends on what you value as evidence.

There certainly is a possibility that ApneaRx “works,” but the company appears to rely mostly on self-reporting from satisfied clients.

According to their own statistics, three out of four clients obtain some degree of relief from snoring and mild cases of sleep apnea.

The other side of that coin is that 25% of people using the device do not achieve relief of their symptoms.

With no objective clinical evidence to back this up, these claims must be taken with a grain of salt (i.e., these are not the same as scientific studies).

The medical literature (i.e., published scientific research) indicates that properly customised oral appliances from a dentist are more likely to be effective and therefore highly recommended over generic pre-fab “boil and bite” devices like the ApneaRx.

Custom oral appliances are better than no treatment and are only considered a first line treatment if a patient cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy.

Additionally, the individual’s own dentist has a more complete history of their client, including aberrations in anatomical structure and health considerations.

On the whole, in most cases, a customised device will provide a better result because it’s designed for you.

How much does the it cost?

The ApneaRx retails for around $350 in Australia. The company recommends replacing the unit every 12 months, so you’re looking at $350 per year.

Up front, ApneaRx is relatively inexpensive compared to CPAP machines, masks, and custom made oral devices. However these proven interventions might be money well spent in the long run.

There are also government programs and insurance providers that subsidise these more expensive sleep disorder treatments, so they’re actually more accessible than what you think.

And remember, cheaper does not necessarily mean better.

What is the best treatment for snoring and sleep apnea?

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure works and is widely considered the gold standard treatment for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

For some people, it can take some to get accustomed to the device, but once past that, you’ll make it part of your regular sleep routine and wonder why you didn’t seek treatment earlier.

Should I buy ApneaRx?

I can’t tell you what to do with your money, but there are a few key points to consider before purchasing any device.

First and foremost, do you even HAVE a sleep disorder? In order to find out, see your doctor and get a referral to a sleep clinic for a detailed sleep study.

If you are formally diagnosed with a sleep disorder such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), then a personalised treatment plan can be arranged.

Stick to the gold standard CPAP therapy first, but if you cannot tolerate this, don’t be afraid to ask your sleep physician about other alternatives.  

Discuss custom oral appliances and whether or not purchasing a pre-fab “boil and bite” device like ApneaRx is useful for your specific condition.

The convenience of carrying around something not much larger than a pair of dentures appeals to many people.

Although there are no guarantees, the ApneaRx might fill a small gap in your overall treatment plan. At worst, you can give it a try for couple of months and if it fails simply return it for a refund.

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Do I Have Sleep Apnea? How To Know For Sure Mon, 14 Jan 2013 05:27:23 +0000 Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in adults has been well documented in Australia, the United States, Europe, and Asia. Studies have shown that approximately 1 in 5 adults have a mild …

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in adults has been well documented in Australia, the United States, Europe, and Asia.

Studies have shown that approximately 1 in 5 adults have a mild form of OSA and 1 in 15 has moderate or severe OSA.1  These statistics should make you take note of your own sleep health.

So could YOU have sleep apnea and how can you know for sure?

What is sleep apnea?

First let’s take a look behind the scenes.  What exactly is sleep apnea?  Sleep apnea is an obstruction of the upper airways affecting normal breathing and respiration while sleeping.  This is known as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

Periodically and repetitively during sleep, your airway is blocked (minimal to zero airflow) by the collapsing of soft oral tissue such as the tongue, soft palate, pharyngeal wall and/or the uvula.

Breathing can stop for at least 10 seconds before your brain signals your body to temporarily wake and “jump start” your normal breathing again – you often have no recollection of these episodes in the morning.

These disruptions in your normal sleeping pattern often throw you out of the deeper sleep stages (known as wakefulness and arousals) and impede your ability to obtain a good night’s sleep.

Related article: Under Armour Athlete Recovery Sleepwear Review

Why is it such a problem?

Adequate sleep is vital for optimal functioning of your body’s biochemical processes but may become compromised in the setting of sleep apnea.  Long term intermittent hypoxia (deprivation of adequate oxygen) can result in:

  • reduced oxygen saturation (can sometimes fall below 60%)
  • increased blood pressure
  • systemic vasoconstriction (your blood vessels tighten)
  • retention of carbon dioxide

These responses may act to promote cardiovascular disease.2, 3  Figure 1 illustrates the potentially harmful cocktail of factors linked to sleep apnea which may contribute to the development of CVD.

sleep apnea
Figure 1. A heavy cocktail – The link between OSA and cardiovascular disease (CVD): Systemic inflammation, thrombosis, increased intrathoracic pressure, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction.

What are the risk factors for sleep apnea?

Some of the known risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea include:

  • Obesity:  Body mass index of greater than 25kg/m2 accompanied by a large neck (>43cm for men and >40cm for women) and waist circumference (>94cm for men or 80cm for women) – present in more than 60% of patients referred for diagnostic evaluation.4
  • Physical Inactivity: Lack of exercise and physical activity is associated with increased severity of sleep-disordered breathing and obesity. Studies have shown that participating in aerobic or recreational activity 3 days per week for at least 30mins per day (60-70% peak VO2) and including resistance training 2 days per week may exhibit a protective effect on the severity and occurrence of OSA.7
  • Existing Chronic Condition: Some existing chronic conditions can facilitate the development of OSA usually via long term respiratory stress and effort. These may include hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, existing pacemaker, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.1
  • Gender: Men have a higher propensity due to various factors such as obesity pattern and fat distribution, upper-airway anatomy and function, the control of breathing, and hormone status.8,9  More research needs to be done to conclusively define male gender as an independent risk factor for apnea.
  • Age: 65 years of age or older. There is a natural reduction in the muscle tone of the oral soft palate, pharyngeal wall, and uvula during aging.  More than 50% of people of age 65 years have reported some form of chronic sleep disorder complaint.4
  • Family history: Individuals with a family history of OSA or sleep-disordered breathing are more susceptible than those without a familial link.4
  • Facial abnormalities:  Certain facial structural abnormalities, including a high, narrow, elongated, soft palate, a small chin, an abnormal bite, and a small jaw can predispose you to sleep apnea.4
  • Vices:  Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption increases the likelihood of developing OSA.Initially alcohol may act as a sedative but several hours later elicits periods of wakefulness and arousal.  The relaxation effect of alcohol can also exacerbate OSA by increasing the laxity in oral soft tissue. The National Health and Medical Research Council recommend no more than two standard drinks per day for both male and females.
  • Medications:  Certain medications may affect respiratory architecture and breathing. Medications such as sleeping tablets or sedatives, benzodiazepines (anti-convulsive and/or anti-anxiety) and opiates (pain relief) aid in relaxation. These pharmacological offenders suppress breathing and make the soft tissue of the upper airway more collapsible.5,6

What are the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea?

It is often the bed partner of a sleep apnea sufferer who first recognizes symptoms.  Here’s a checklist of the most common indicators of OSA:

  • Chronic snoring
  • Waking gasping for breath
  • Witnessed apnea (frequent pauses in breathing whilst asleep)
  • Excessive daytime tiredness and fatigue
  • Waking unrefreshed
  • Dry, sore mouth and/or throat
  • Irritability and mood changes
  • Frequent urination during the night

How is sleep apnea diagnosed?

Sleep apnea in Australia and the United States goes largely undiagnosed.  In fact,  since more than 85% of patients with clinically significant and treatable OSA have never been diagnosed,1 it makes sense that most people with sleep apnea are often unaware they have it.

First line evaluation may include the Epsworth Sleepiness Scale, a self-report questionnaire designed to identify daytime tiredness and lethargy. Positive results may not indicate a confirmed diagnosis but the questionnaire encourages further investigation via a sleep study assessment.

A definitive diagnosis of sleep apnea can be made only with a sleep study conducted during a visit to a sleep lab – usually overnight – or a home study performed with special equipment (and if used by an experienced clinician).4 This is called a polysomnogram.

How can I take action against sleep apnea?

The good news is you can manage sleep apnea.  If you’re experiencing signs and symptoms and think you may have it, consult your doctor for referral to a qualified sleep physician and a diagnostic sleep assessment.

The earlier you take action the better the long term outcomes for reducing the potential for adverse cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, and psychological effects.

Where can I get more information?

More information can be found on the Sleep Health Foundation website.

In the United States, The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has a sleep health information resource online at


  1. Mugnai, G. (2010). Pathophysiological links between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and metabolic syndrome.Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia (Rome). 11(6): 453-9.
  2. Somers, V.K., Dyken , M.E., Mark, A.L., Abboud, F.M. (1993). Sympathetic-nerve activity during sleep in normal subjects. New England Journal of Medicine. 328:303-307
  3. Somers, V.K., Dyken, M.E., Clary, M.P., Abboud, F.M. (1995). Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 96:1897-1904
  4. Punjabi, N.M. (2008). The Epidemology of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Proceedings of theAmerican Thoracic Society.5(2), 136-43.
  5. Guilleminault, C. (1990). Benzodiazepines, Breathing, and Sleep. American Journal of Medicine. 88 (suppl 3A): 25-28
  6. Teichtahl H, Wang D, Cunnington D, et al. (2009). Hypoxemia in patients on chronic opiate therapy with and without sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 13: 49–57. 41.
  7. Silva, R .P., Belli, K.C., Carissimi, A., Fiori, C.Z., Faria, C.C., Martinez, D. (2011). Are there benefits of exercise in sleep apnea? Sleep Science. 4(2):61-67.
  8. O’Donnell, C.P., Schwartz, A.R., Smith, P.L. (2000). Upper airway collapsibility the importance of gender and adiposity. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine.162(5):1606-7.
  9. Schwab, R.J. (1999). Sex differences and sleep apnea. Thorax. 54(4):323-8.

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Raspberry Ketones Review of Marketing Claims Thu, 08 Nov 2012 05:32:16 +0000 The self-proclaimed weight loss “experts” are at it again touting the latest fashionable supplement du jour.  Raspberry ketones (RK) derived  – not so surprisingly –  from raspberries purportedly help you …

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The self-proclaimed weight loss “experts” are at it again touting the latest fashionable supplement du jour. 

Raspberry ketones (RK) derived  – not so surprisingly –  from raspberries purportedly help you lose that extra fat once and for all. 

Suppliers can’t keep up with the demand since television health evangelist Dr. Oz and supplement-spruiking side-kick Lisa Lynn gave the product the green light to millions of viewers earlier this year.

Sounds like a simple solution to a complex problem, but is it really that easy? 

Are raspberry ketones really a “miracle in a bottle” or are such claims treading on thin ice? 

In this article, I explore the other side of the marketing hype and dig deep into the science and facts surrounding raspberry ketones.

What are raspberry ketones?

Raspberry ketone, also known as rheosmin is a natural phenolic compound most active in mature red raspberries (rubus idaeus) responsible for their distinctive aroma.  

It is also an additive used in perfumes, shampoos, cosmetics and the food industry, plus we’ve been consuming it in REAL raspberries for hundreds of years.

Raspberry ketones are produced naturally in the raspberry fruit via a process called biosynthesis. 

The natural quantity of RK found in raspberries is very low.  

However, advances in food technology have enabled the compound to be produced synthetically thus making it more commercially abundant.

How do raspberry ketones work and what are the claims?

Respected cardiothoracic surgeon and professor, Dr. Mehmet Oz first made it big on the Oprah Winfrey show but has since swapped his scrubs for a shiny suit and now saturates his popular TV show with fad diets, gimmicks, and supplements “guaranteed” to be your next weight loss solution. 

No surprise then that raspberry ketones were given a grandiose reception on a recent show. 

Dr. Oz unraveled the wonder of Raspberry Ketones with guest and personal trainer Lisa Lynn.

Who is Lisa Lynn anyway?

Before we go on, who is Lisa Lynn anyway and is she qualified to speak on nutrition? 

Her website lists certifications through the International Sports and Sciences Association (ISSA), but there is no mention of any university degrees or coursework in the nutritional sciences (i.e., nutritional biochemistry, physiology, etc).  

Moreover, there appears to be a conflict of interest because her “recommendations” for raspberry ketones on Dr. Oz’s show appear to serve her website supplement sales agenda.

A colleague of mine, Joe Cannon, MS, CSCS has also authored a raspberry ketones article and provides more information on Lisa Lynn.

Dr Oz and nutrition advice: “Trust me, I’m a doctor”

It is noteworthy to point out that when a doctor discredits a popular diet or supplement, the main criticism leveled at the dissenter is that doctors receive minimal university nutrition training. 

However, if a doctor says a supplement is the latest greatest, then people immediately run out to the shops and sweep the product off the shelves. 

While Dr. Oz is clearly an intelligent person, he should have done his homework on raspberry ketones before lending his increasingly-dwindling reputation to this product.

CLAIM:  Raspberry ketones promote weight loss through their fat-burning properties

Raspberry ketones appear to have a similar chemical structure to capsaicin and synephrine which may have a mild fat-mobilizing effect. 

This potential weight-loss link prompted the current research which is now being used as “support” for the over-the-top marketing claims for RK.  

Unfortunately, this is a common theme in the supplement world with previous substances like pyruvate, caralluma fimbriata, and liproxenol being sold with less than adequate scientific evidence.

CLAIM: Raspberry ketones stimulate the release of adiponectin from fat cells

Adiponectin is a hormone exclusively released by fat cells in adipose tissue and plays an important role in glucose regulation and fat metabolism.

It has anti-inflammatory benefits and reduced adiponectin levels are associated with obesity, diabetes, and increased cardiovascular risk.   (More on the role of adiponectin in human disease here).

While it is true that adiponectin has the above protective properties, there is insufficient scientific evidence that raspberry ketones exert a favorable effect on this hormone. 

More on this below.

CLAIM: “Raspberry ketone can help in your weight loss efforts, especially when paired with regular exercise and a well-balanced diet of healthy and whole foods.” (

As of this writing, there is no objective scientific evidence that raspberry ketones contribute to weight loss in humans (see below).

The second half of this claim is probably the best advice you could receive. 

It is more likely that any associated weight loss would stem from the inclusion of a balanced diet and regular exercise, particularly if you are increasing your energy expenditure above and beyond what you were previously doing. 

Unfortunately, most people miss the fine print and end up attributing their hard work and results to raspberry ketones alone – the effects of which are yet to be determined in humans.

Raspberry ketones research 

When Dr. Oz asked Lisa Lynn “How did you find it and why do you think it’s so valuable?” she replied, “research, research, research!”  

That might be enough to make most viewers to switch off their boloney detectors, but to which research is she referring?  

As I start to uncover the missing pieces to the puzzle, it is absolutely clear that MORE research needs to be done.

What “they” don’t want you to know about raspberry ketones

As of this writing, there is no evidence that raspberry ketones effectively reduce body fat and improve fat metabolism in human beings

No studies have been conducted involving humans ingesting an oral form of raspberry ketone. 

We have no information about the short or long-term effects of using raspberry ketones as a dietary supplement, which involves much higher dosages than that used in other industrial applications.

What?  Only two raspberry ketone studies?

The evidence is limited to only two preliminary studies involving mice, test tubes and cell cultures:

Study 1:

A 2005 Japanese study investigated the effects of raspberry ketones on obese male mice fed a high fat diet.   They wanted to see if:  

  1. raspberry ketones could prevent obesity; and
  2. reduce overall body fat and fat stores around the organs (called visceral fat). 

The experimental and placebo groups each contained only six (6) mice. 

The PREVENTION Groups were either fed a normal laboratory diet, a high fat diet (approx. 40% of total calories), or a high fat diet plus raspberry ketone (0.5% – 2%) for 10 weeks.

The WEIGHT LOSS groups were fed the same high fat diet for 6 weeks and then high fat plus raspberry ketone (1%) for 5 weeks.

Results from this study demonstrated that the addition of raspberry ketone helped reduce body weight and liver fat stores.  

A secondary response was that the combination of raspberry ketones with the action of norepinephrine proved better at drawing fat from cells than norepinephrine alone.

To the untrained observer, these results might seemingly warrant a victory lap, but they must be interpreted and put into context for them to be meaningful in a practical sense.


  • This is a rodent study.  These effects have not been tested or observed in human beings.
  • The study used male mice only.  It is not known if there is a gender effect, as this was not tested in female mice.
  • There were only 6 mice in each group (experimental and placebo).   Such a low number may detract from the strength of the statistical calculations.  It is necessary to see human studies with a large number of subjects.  This would increase the statistical integrity of the study and make it more relevant to dieters.
  • These studies were carried out in controlled conditions using rodents.  However, if implemented in free-living humans, there is much more opportunity for variations in diet, activity, and overall adherence to the study protocol which would affect the results.  Thus, human studies are much more cumbersome (though they must still be conducted).
  • Because only two small studies have been conducted, there is no evidence supporting the long-term use of raspberry ketones in humans nor on the effects of different calorie intakes.

Study 2:

This 2010 Korean study investigated the possible mechanism for the anti-obesity action of raspberry ketones.  

It demonstrated that by stimulating lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and adiponectin secretion, raspberry ketones suppress fat accumulation and improve fat metabolism.  

So the effects of raspberry ketones on these processes were determined but the underlying mechanisms were not confirmed.

Unfortunately this study was only conducted in controlled conditions in test tubes and with cell cultures.

We may see a different response in humans considering the numerous other factors affecting our accumulation of body fat and taking into account individual differences (Park, K.S., 2010).

An Australian study looked at how adiponectin levels can be affected by exercise in humans.

It concluded that after short-term, moderate intensity exercise adiponectin levels increased by 260%.

These changes were apparent after 1 week of 2-3 short bouts of exercise (Kriketos, A.D. et al, 2004).

So for no cost at all, you can get a more effective response just by exercising at the right intensity and duration.

How much do raspberry ketone supplements cost?

Wholesale raspberry ketones are widely available through Asian manufacturers.

  • Pure Laboratory Raspberry Ketone (Hazardous): Approximately $5000/kg
  • Synthetic Raspberry Ketone Powder: Approximately $10-$50/kg
  • Raspberry Ketone Capsules: Wholesale can be as little as $2.50 for one bottle

Raspberry ketone supplements in Australia

Raspberry ketone supplements have made their way down under and can be purchased for around $50.

The mark ups are huge and you can see why they are so commercially attractive.

The last word on raspberry ketones

Unfortunately raspberry ketones are not the amazing miracle supplement they’re claimed to be.

The extrapolated evidence is only speculation and the exact mechanisms for raspberry ketone weight loss are not completely understood and, as of this writing, there is limited independent science to substantiate marketing claims.

The obesity epidemic didn’t happen because of a worldwide raspberry ketone shortage so direct your time, money and energy towards a nutritious diet (low in processed foods) and improving unproductive habits.

Support this with evidenced-based exercise and you’re on the right track!

The age-old adage of eat a healthy, low-calorie, nutrient rich diet and get regular exercise still holds true. 

There is nothing wrong with taking a dietary supplement, but make sure there is a reasonable body of scientific evidence to support the often overblown marketing claims.

For more specific information, consult a university-trained dietitian or clinical exercise physiologist for reliable information on diet and exercise.


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